This was something that encouraged a implication of rulers in Europe to recession with Rome. At the conviction, the amount of shoes real estate owned by the perform was immense and the church service was oft referred to as the dead kick in [in property].
From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be regarded as one of the great events of the sixteenth century. They were looked upon in Englandat the time of Henry's breach with Romeas one of the great bulwarks of the papal system.
The monks had been called "the great standing army of Rome. This was in ; and, some time prior to the December of that year, arrangements were already being made for a systematic visitation. It is well to remember this, as it throws an interesting and somewhat unexpected light upon the first dissolutions: Parliament was to meet early in the following year,and, with the twofold object of replenishing an exhausted exchequer and of anticipating opposition on the part of the religious to the proposed ecclesiastical changes, according to the royal design, the Commons were to be asked to grant Henry the possessions of at least the smaller monasteries.
It must have been felt, however, by the astute Cromwell, who is credited with the first conception of the design, that to succeed, a project such as this must be sustained by strong yet simple reasons calculated to appeal to the popular mind.
Some decent pretext had to be found for presenting the proposed measure of suppression and confiscation to the nation, and it can hardly now be doubted that the device of blackening the characters of the monks and nuns was deliberately resorted to.
The visitation opened apparently in the summer ofalthough the visitatorial powers of the bishops were not suspended until the eighteenth of the following September. Preachers were moreover commissioned to go over the country in the early autumn, in order, by their invectives, to educate public opinion against the monks.
These pulpit orators were of three sorts: They were well-fitted for their work; and the charges brought against the good name of some at least of the monasteriesby these chosen emissaries of Cromwell are, it must be confessed, sufficiently dreadful, although even their reports certainly do not bear out the modern notion of wholesale corruption.
The visitation seems to have been conducted systematically, and to have passed through three clearly defined stages. During the summer the houses in the West of England were subjected to examination; and this portion of the work came to an end in September, when Layton and Leigh arrived at Oxford and Cambridge respectively.
In October and November the visitors changed the field of their labours to the eastern and southeastern districts; and in December we find Layton advancing through the midland counties to Lichfieldwhere he met Leigh, who had finished his work in the religious houses of Huntingdon and Lincolnshire.
Thence they proceeded together to the north, and the city of York was reached on 11 January, But with all their haste, to which they were urged by Cromwell, they had not proceeded very far in the work of their northern inspection before the meeting of Parliament.
From time to time, whilst on their work of inspection, the visitors, and principally London and Leigh, sent brief reports to their employers.
Practically all the accusations made against the good name of the monks and nuns are contained in the letters sent in this way by the visitors, and in the document, or documents, known as the "Comperta Monastica", which were drawn up at the time by the same visitors and forwarded to their chief, Cromwell.
No other evidence as to the state of the monasteries at this time is forthcoming, and the inquirer into the truth of these accusations is driven back ultimately upon the worth of these visitors' words.
It is easy, of course, to dismiss inconvenient witnesses as being unworthy of credit, but in this case a mere study of these letters and documents is quite sufficient to cast considerable doubt upon their testimony as wholly unworthy of belief.
It is of course impossible to enter into the details of the visitation. We must, therefore, pass to the second step in the dissolution. Parliament met on 4 February,and the chief business it was called upon to transact was the consideration and passing of the act suppressing the smaller religious houses.
It may be well to state exactly what is known about this matter. We know for certain that the king's proposal to suppress the smaller religious houses gave rise to a long debate in the Lower House, and that Parliament passed the measure with great reluctance.
It is more than remarkable, moreover, that in the preamble of the Act itself Parliament is careful to throw the entire responsibility for the measure upon the king, and to declare, if words mean anything at all, that they took the truth of the charges against the good name of the religious, solely upon the king's "declaration" that he knew the charges to be true.
All are, to use a common expression, "tarred with the same brush"; all, that is, are equally smirched by the filthy suggestions of Layton and Leigh, of London and Aprice. Gairdner, the editor of the State papers of this period, "is not borne out by the 'Comperta'.
Can it be imagined for a moment that this assertion could have found its way into the Act of Parliament, had the reports, or "Comperta", of the visitors been laid upon the table of the House of Commons for the inspection of the members?
We are consequently compelled by this fact to accept as history the account of the matter given in the preamble of the first Act of dissolution: In its final shape the first measure of suppression merely enacted that all the religious houses not possessed of an income of more than pounds a year should be given to the Crown.
The heads of such houses were to receive pensions, and the religious, despite the alleged depravity of some, were to be admitted to the larger and more observant monasteriesor to be licensed to act as secular priests. The measure of turpitude fixed by the Act was thus a pecuniary one. All monastic establishments which fell below the pounds a year standard of "good living" were to be given to the king to be dealt with at his "pleasure, to the honour of God and the wealth of the realm.
As early as April, less than a month from the passing of the measurewe find mixed commissions of officials and country gentlemen appointed in consequence to make surveys of the religious housesand instructions issued for their guidance.
The returns made by these commissioners are of the highest importance in determining the moral state of the religious houses at the time of their dissolution. It is now beyond dispute that the accusations of Cromwell's visitors were made prior to, not after as most writers have erroneously supposedthe constitution of these mixed commissions of gentry and officials.
The main purpose for which the commissioners were nominated was of course to find out what houses possessed an income of less than pounds a year; and to take over such in the king's name, as now by the late Act legally belonging to His Majesty.
The gentry and officials were however instructed to find out and report upon "the conversation of the lives" of the religious; or in other words they were specially directed to examine into the moral state of the houses visited. Unfortunately, comparatively few of the returns of these mixed commissions are now known to exist; although some have been discovered, which were unknown to Dr.
Gairdner when he made his "Calendar" of the documents of Henry VIII () was king of England from to As a consequence of the Pope's refusal to nullify his first marriage, Henry withdrew from the Roman Church and created the Church of England.
The second son of Henry VII, Henry VIII was born on June 28, , at Greenwich Palace. He was a precocious student; he learned Latin, Spanish, French, and Italian and studied mathematics, music, and .
He alsowanted to gain power and tranceformingnlp.com actually needed to break away from the Catholic Church because hecould not produce a male heir with Catherine of Aragon.
Several of their babieshad died, and Henry’s only legitimate child was a girl called Mary. Henry appeared to believe that he needed to change the religion on England to close corrupted monasteries, although there is some truth in that, it was mainly for the money, which I don’t understand because he was already loaded with money, but hey!.
Why did Henry VIII close the monasteries? No description by Bethan Pfeiffer on 8 November Tweet. Report abuse. Transcript of Why did Henry VIII close the monasteries? Henry VIII = Head of the Church of England Problems: Monasteries too rich Monasteries not following beliefs rigorously enough Monks idle Inspections King Henry VIII longed for a male heir to the throne and due to Katherine's inability to bear a male heir; Henry looked to the church for an approval of a divorce.
Henry claimed that he never should have been able to wed Katherine citing it forbade in the church scriptures. Nov 16, · Henry VIII asked the Pope for an annulment (since the Catholic Church does not recognize divorce, per se) and decided to leave the Catholic Church when his request was rejected.