Leeds suffered nine air-raids over the duration of the war with its heaviest on the night of 14 and 15 March when forty bombers attacked the city centre. Incendiary and high explosive bombs destroyed around houses killing 65 people. However Belinksky was injured by a falling bomb and died 17 days later.
Once a project is under way, we need to assess and ensure the accuracy of the data gathered. We have to face the question: At the very least, we must be aware of the limitations of oral history in order not to mislead ourselves into believing that oral history automatically yields accurate renditions of past events.
Because oral history depends upon living people as sources, we have limits; we can go back one lifetime. Because oral history uses spoken, not written sources, the allowable evidence expands.
Even in the absence of written documentation, groups such as women, minorities, and the not-famous have been able to record their own histories and the histories of those they consider important using oral history.
History is no longer limited to the powerful, famous, and rich, and literate. Now history can give us a much more inclusive, and, one hopes, accurate History of the telephone essays of the past. Used to accurately record oral narratives, the inexpensive portable tape recorder helped democratize the gathering of history.
Interestingly, while technology in the form of the tape recorder is responsible in part for the spread of oral history techniques, technology is also to blame in part for the need for oral history.
Rather than write letters, for instance, people travel to see each other or they make telephone calls that dissolve into air.
Now electronic mail via computers may make written records even more scarce. Trained to depend on written records, traditional historians have been known to shudder in horror at the potential problems and inherent weaknesses of oral history.
What of the failings of human memory? What of the human tendency to impose a narrative structure on events that may not be closely connected? What of the self-serving motives of the story teller? What of the power relationships between interviewer and interviewee that affect what and how events are reported?
What of the differences between the spoken and written word? What of the inaccuracies that creep into meaning when trying to put a conversation onto paper? Well, many of the same problems arise in using written records. Written sources can carry personal or social biases.
Written sources occur within a social context. As an example, newspaper accounts contemporary with events often suffer from historical inaccuracy because of the ideological slants of reporters and editorial staff, because of the availability of sources, because of advertisers' interests, and because of the need to sell interesting stories that the public wants to buy.
Yet these same newspaper accounts can be used as historical evidence of people's attitudes and interpretations. Even historical analysis published by professional historians intent on upholding the best standards in their field still falls short of that elusive goal, a complete and totally objective account of events.
How about films and photographs? Can the camera remain objective and give us an accurate view of events? Even visual media give only fragments. Furthermore, the photographer chooses to record a portion of an event, and her point of view suggests an interpretation.
The equipment, social context, and intent of the photographer affect what photographs will be recorded, what will be printed, and how it will be presented to viewers. In oral history, in addition to asking all of the historian's usual questions about accuracy, one must also ask questions about putting spoken words on paper.
At first one tends to assume that a transcription of a tape-recorded interview of an eyewitness would be a very accurate record of an event.Published: Mon, 5 Dec The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the strategic decisions that have occurred over the corporate history of Nestle mentioned in the case and to what extent has Mergers and Acquisitions and Strategic Alliances played a role in NESTLE’s strategy in that period.
Essays by Isaac Asimov about technology and space Copyright © by Edward Seiler and Richard Hatcher. All rights reserved. The Fire of Life. The telephone was the most important invention of the 's. the telephone was invented in the 's by Alexander Graham bell.
By inventing the telephone Alexander changed the way people live. In , at the age of 29, Alexander Graham Bell /5(3). By Peter N. Stearns.
People live in the present. They plan for and worry about the future. History, however, is the study of the past. Given all the demands that press in from living in the present and anticipating what is yet to come, why bother with what has been?
Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time.
A videophone is a telephone with a video display, capable of simultaneous video and audio for communication between people in real-time. Videoconferencing implies the use of this technology for a group or. Published: Fri, 21 Apr The Telephone. In today’s world we can reach into our pocket, grab our cell phone, and dial the person we wish to get in contact with and be conversing with them in seconds.