Environment Environment is the background for human interactions. In addition, king discussed: Function of professional nurse:
In order to do that, it is necessary to set health goals with the patient, and then take steps to achieve those goals. In hospital settings, as nurses, we have proved that when the nurse and client communicate and work together toward mutually selected goals, the goals are more likely to be attained.
She developed a general systems framework and a theory of goal attainment where the framework refers to the three interacting systems - individual or personal, group or interpersonal, and society or social, while Goal attainment theory theory of goal attainment pertains to the importance of interaction, perception, communication, transaction, self, role, stress, growth and development, time, and personal space.
King emphasizes that both the nurse and the client bring important knowledge and information to the relationship and that they work together to achieve goals. Each system is given different concepts.
The concepts for the personal system are: These are fundamentals in understanding human being because this refers to how the nurse views and integrates self based from personal goals and beliefs.
Among all these concepts, the most important is perception, because it influences behavior. Personal systems are individuals, who are regarded as rational, sentient, social beings. Concepts related to the personal system are: Perception— a process of organizing, interpreting, and transforming information from sense data and memory that gives meaning to one's experience, represents one's image of reality, and influences one's behavior.
Self— a composite of thoughts and feelings that constitute a person's awareness of individual existence, of who and what he or she is. Growth and development— cellular, molecular, and behavioral changes in human beings that are a function of genetic endowment, meaningful and satisfying experiences, and an environment conducive to helping individuals move toward maturity.
Body image—a person's perceptions of his or her body. Time—the duration between the occurrence of one event and the occurrence of another event.
Space—the physical area called territory that exists in all directions. The concepts associated for the interpersonal system are: King refers to two individuals as dyads, three as triads and four or more individuals as small group or large group King, This shows how the nurse interrelates with a co-worker or patient, particularly in a nurse-patient relationship.
Communication between the nurse and the client can be verbal or nonverbal. Collaboration between the Dyads nurse-patient is very important for the attainment of the goal.
The concepts associated with this system are: Interactions—the acts of two or more persons in mutual presence; a sequence of verbal and nonverbal behaviors that are goal directed.
Communication—the vehicle by which human relations are developed and maintained; encompasses intrapersonal, interpersonal, verbal, and nonverbal communication.
Transaction—a process of interaction in which human beings communicate with the environment to achieve goals that are valued; goal-directed human behaviors. Role—a set of behaviors expected of a person occupying a position in a social system. Stress—a dynamic state whereby a human being interacts with the environment to maintain balance for growth, development, and performance, involving an exchange of energy and information between the person and the environment for regulation and control of stressors.
Coping—a way of dealing with stress.King’s Conceptual System and Theory of Goal Attainment and Transactional Process Dynamic Interacting Systems King has interrelated the concepts of interaction, perception, communication, transaction, self, role, stress, growth and development, time, and space into a theory of goal attainment.
Theory of Goal Attainment Nursing is a process of action, reaction, and interaction whereby nurse and client share information about their perceptions in the nursing situation. The nurse and client share specific goals, problems, and concerns and explore means to achieve a goal.
Imogene King’s Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status.
However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who.
Theory of Goal Attainment and Nursing Process Assessment The nurse brings special knowledge and skills whereas client brings knowledge of self and perception of problems of concern, to this interaction. Imogene King: Goal Attainment Theory 1. Goal Attainment Theory 2. “A professional nurse, withspecial knowledge and skills, anda client in need of nursing, withknowledge of self and perceptionof personal problems, meet asstrangers in naturalenvironment.
In Goal Attainment theory of theorist Imogene King, in order to meet the patient's needs that deviates his/her condition, goals are formulated uniquely for every patients, by mutual understanding between the patient and the nurse, who is the health care professional that works closely with patients.