Hale, The George Washington University How can we understand the important phenomenon of modern-day warlords, often associated with state failure and transborder criminality even as state leaders frequently rely upon them as a source of order or peace in the most difficult of conditions? Strong-Arm Brokers in Weak States blazes a new trail in answering this question, adopting an explicitly inductive approach to theory-building through the study of four important cases of warlordism:
While it is true that police brutality and oppression abounded during the colonial period and still exists now, efforts, however inadequate, were made to protect the lives and property of citizens against all odds.
Indeed, Tamuno has noted that the gallantry of the Nigeria Police Force in the colonial period led to the busting of several criminal cases. The major ones can be categorised under broad headings, such as corruption, lack of adequate manpower and logistics.
The Criminal Code Ordinance. Public opinion in Lagos, from the s through the 80s, and even after into the twentieth century, attests to this. This was one of the factors that made the police force so inefficient, making escape by criminals a pastime.
Jailbreaks were so rampant that bywhen Lugard published the Criminal Code Bill, the issue of escape by criminals was listed as an offence in Section Thus, aiding criminals to escape, permitting escape, negligence leading to escape and the harbouringof escaped criminals became punishable offences.
The wife of one ofthe gang leaders passed a handcuff key in a loaf of bread unto him. The Transformation of a Nigerian Lagoon Town: Several chiefs were reported as collaborating with thieves for example, in the case of the Baale of Ago Sasa in and of another chief in Ede in Kosoko's piratical activities in Epe, though resistant in nature, is also worthy of note.
Criminals were feared for several reasons. First, they did not hesitate to injure or kill their victims. Second, they were usually in large groups of thirty or more, a factor that intimidated people. They were usually bold enough to announce their arrivai to their victims. A case in point was the incident that occurred in the Agege District in the s when a robbery gang, after announcing its arrivai to the villagers, ordered them to leave the environment or lie prostrate covering their faces.
At a particular point, a man who gave information to the police was driven away from his home by other villagers, for he was considered to have further increased the possibility of a repeat attack by robbers.
Had anyone testified, such testimony would have been admissible in a court of law. Eventually, however, with some good detective work, the police were able to arrest some of the culprits.
These were later charged to court but, as noted by the prosecution, those who were prosecuted were not the gang leaders. Extradition To and From Canada. The I lauser Press, pp.
International Extradition and World Public Order. Republic of Benin at Des Archi To extradite means to officially send back somebody who has been accused or found guilty of a crime to the country where the crime was committed.
The author identified four periods in the history of extradition 34That the treaty itself was signed inwhen the grips of the two colonial powers on their colonial territories were yet wobbly, suggests an early recognition of the advantages that the asylum value of the two unfolding frontiers conferred, particularly on criminals, and indicates clearly that the treaty was a product of partnership against these elements in the two colonised territories.
In a wider context, the enactment of the treaty also concurred w ith the worldwide concern, beginning fromto tackle common criminality.
However, available records are silent on the workings of the treaty until the early twentieth century. Thus the successes and failures of the law were dependent, to a large extent, on the understanding of the terms of the agreement by the officers directly concerned with the extradition affairs in the colonial territories and.
Vaughan, who was accused of larceny of postal materials before Police Magistrate R. Tawoshe making enquiries concerning certain postal orders.
Also admitted in evidence was a letter purportedly written by one M. Chailiner, However, Africanus Mylander, the Chief Clerk in the post office reaiised that the said letter had been written by the accused, James C.
Vaughan, until then a clerk in the service of the post office at Ibadan. The writing tallied with that on the postal order. This discovery led to Vaughan's suspension and interrogation by the police. Vaughan was brought before-the Police Magistrate, the case was called and then adjourned and Vaughan, benefiting from the respite provided by bail, escaped into the French territory.
But on this particular occasion, he collected the bags but did not deliver that of Ibara Station. The traffic inspector, L. Whisker, actually made the deposition that led to the issuance of a search warrant on Elliot's house.
In all, he received 34 bags but there was none from Ibara station. On reporting this discovery to the stationmaster of Ibara and the Chief Accountant, it was found that the bag was duly handed over to Elliot and receipted for by him.Oct 03, · H ow can we understand the important phenomenon of modern-day warlords, often associated with state failure and transborder criminality even as state leaders frequently rely upon them as a source of order or peace in the most difficult of conditions?
Kimberly Marten’s Warlords: Strong-Arm Brokers in Weak States blazes a new trail in answering this question, adopting an explicitly inductive. corruption, especially bribery and embezzlement, is rife across the public and private sectors. For example, during , fuel subsidy scams accounted for the loss of US$7.
Mathieu Deflem tranceformingnlp.com This is an online copy of a chapter published in International Police Cooperation: A World Perspective, edited by Daniel J.
Koenig and Dilip K. Das, pp. , Lexington Books, Also available in print-friendly pdf format. Cite as: Deflem, Mathieu. Police and Cross-Border Crime in an Era of Globalisation: The Case of the Benin-Nigeria Border.
Olakunle Michael Folami. Department of Sociology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Ondo State, Nigeria. Police corruption is a complex issue.
Police corruption or the abuse ofauthority by a police officer, acting officially to fulfill personal needs orwants, is a growing problem in the United States today.
Things such as anInternal Affairs department, a /5(1). Even where state power does exist in full force, the corruption of individual regimes can impede international cooperation.
Issues of transborder criminality aside, many law enforcement agencies as we know them, lack the capacity on their own to control computer-related crime which occurs entirely within their own jurisdiction.