Discussion Infection with HBV is a public health problem. Early detection of HBV infection is essential to prevent deleterious consequences of such an infection and to prevent the spread of the virus. In this study, we investigate the presenting symptoms in patients with HBV. Unfortunately, the majority of patients recruited in this study were asymptomatic.
The transmission of HCV is not the effect of the drug injected but of sharing contaminated equipment. For the sake of prevention, we have to know which factors are more likely to lead to HCV seroconversion and which particular situations and environments are risk factors for equipment sharing.
As far as therapy is concerned, some studies have shown that treatment for HCV infection in IDUs during substitution treatment for drug dependency is as successful as is treatment of patients who are not IDUs. The rate of reinfection may not as high as supposed.
All studies dealing with treatment for HCV infection in IDUs have stressed the necessity of collaboration among hepatologists and specialists in addiction medicine, social workers, and psychotherapists.
In the United States, injection drug use accounts for most cases of HCV transmission [ 1 ], and the long-term sequelae of chronic HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma continue to increase, particularly in white men aged 45—54 years.
This may be explained by the consequences of HCV infections acquired during the s and s [ 9 ]. Control of HCV infection in the United States therefore will require the development, testing, and implementation of effective prevention and treatment strategies for persons who inject drugs [ 10 ].
The transmission of these infectious diseases is not an effect of, for example, heroin or cocaine but the result of sharing contaminated equipment [ 17—21 ].
However, needle exchange programs do not seem to prevent HCV infections as effectively as they do HIV infections [ 2022 ]. This is because HCV, in contrast to HIV, is detectable in high concentrations in other utensils for heroin injection, such as filters, spoons, and rinsing liquids.
Therefore, not only the sharing of needles and syringes but also the sharing of the other utensils seems to be an important risk factor for HCV infection [ 23—28 ]. To be able to inform effectively, we have to know which other factors are more likely to lead to HCV seroconversion and which particular situations and environments are risk factors for equipment sharing.
In different studies, the following risk factors were identified: We investigated risk factors for HCV infection in a cohort of patients admitted to our detoxification unit between April and April All subjects included in our study had to be admitted voluntarily and had to meet the current International Classification of Diseases 10th edition diagnosis of opioid dependence.
All subjects have previously injected heroin iv.
One thousand forty-nine patients were included. By use of multiple logistic regression, we found that older age, longer duration of opioid use, living with other long-term drug users, history of imprisonment, history of inpatient abstinence-oriented psychotherapeutic therapy, and additional daily consumption of alcohol were independently associated with serologic test results positive for antibody to HCV figure 1 [ 8 ].
The treatment of somatic diseases in IDUs is reported to be difficult. To treat somatic diseases in IDUs successfully, collaboration between specialists for somatic diseases and addiction medicine is mandatory.
Alternatively, physicians should be specialized in both addiction medicine and infectious diseases. However, not only physicians should collaborate. Interdisciplinary teamwork seems to be the best prerequisite for success: Social workers, psychologists, psychotherapists, and physicians should work together.
Possible parts of an addiction care network are listed in table 1. A psychotherapeutic approach could be most suitable for the first contact between physician or therapist and IDU:Six drug-use related risk factors were significantly associated with HBVinfection on infection with HBV.
Further analysis using multiple logistic regression indicated that the mostimportant factor was injection ofdrugs while assigned to the study unit.
In the presence ofthis variable, all other. HBV infection remained associated with lower prevalence of these metabolic risk factors, even after adjusting for age and ALT, so there was also an inverse association between metabolic risk-factor sum and HBV infection (all P.
To determine the risk factors for the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
Material and methods. A total of patients who tested positive for hepatitis B surface Multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with HCC in patients with HBV infection. Citation: Daw MA, Shabash A, El-Bouzedi A, Dau AA, in association with the Libyan Study Group of Hepatitis & HIV () Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV & HIV Co-Infection and Risk Factors Analysis in Tripoli-Libya.
PLoS ONE 9(6): e Sero-prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection and its risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Niger J Basic Clin Reprod Sci ; Effects of possible risk factors in chronic HBV-infected patients: (a) high HBV DNA levels; and (b) high HBV DNA levels adjusted.
Figure 6 Effects of possible risk factors in chronic HBV-infected patients: (a) HBeAg positive; and (b) HBeAg positive adjusted.